Battery storage of electricity

Optimal storage depends on the chemicals used in the cells, so manufacturers add different additives to optimize battery performance depending on how they will be used. Cells can discharge over time, chemicals can break down, solvents in electrolytes can penetrate the battery wall, causing electrolyte leakage and drying of the battery and thus the effectiveness of the battery. Heat also affects battery life and it is recommended to keep them in a cool place. There are various types of batteries and cells could be divided into two basic groups, primary (primary) and rechargeable (secondary).
Basic cells (primary batteries) – their basic characteristic is that they cannot be charged. They should be stored in a cool place, and it is optimal to keep them at 0 to 10 degrees Celsius.
Rechargeable cells (secondary batteries) – these include batteries with lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel cadmium hydride, lithium-ion, and others.
Lead batteries – the most famous and oldest secondary battery, we use it as a battery in cars. The battery consists of one or more cells that give 2V per cell, and in cars those with a voltage of 12V are used, so the batteries have 6 cells. Lead-acid batteries should be kept in a cool place, but electrolytes should never be frozen (battery problems that occur in the winter months). The battery must not be left without electrolytes, discharged below 1.8V or stand for a long time without recharging (discharge is about 1% per day), it must not be charged or discharged with a stronger current because it would reduce its capacity.
Nickel-cadmium batteries – the advantages of batteries are a longer lifespan of about 1500 cycles and the endurance of a higher discharge current, and the disadvantages of toxicity and the problem of crystallization. The successor to this battery is the Nickel-metal-hybrid battery (NiMH, Ni-MH). With Nickel, the problem of toxicity was solved, and the energy density or capacity was improved by a couple of times and the problem of the crystallization effect was reduced, the disadvantage being a shorter lifespan and self-discharge.
Lithium-ion batteries – charge faster, last longer and have a higher power density, and are slower to discharge and lighter, have three times the native voltage than the nickel-based voltage, is not subject to the crystallization or memory effect of batteries. Today they are used to charge laptops and cell phones. The weakness of this battery is that it is very sensitive to overcharging as well as excessive discharge, but this problem is solved by electronics. The successor to this battery is the Lithium-polymer battery (Li-Poly, LiPo, LIP).